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Within Comfortable Viewing Distance 500mm References "Department of Defense Design Criteria Standard - Human Engineering," MILSTD-1472F, Department of Defense, August 1999. Dobbins, T., "The High Speed Craft Human Factors Design Process," Human Systems Integration Symposium, Arlington, VA, June 2005. Dzinodolet, M.T., L.A. Dawe, H.P. beck, L.G. Pierce, "A Framework of Automation Use," Report ARL-TR-2412, U.S. Army Research Laboratory, March 2001. Eilbert, J.L., F. Reed, K. Bracken, G.E. Campbell, "Proactive Delivery of Human Factors Information to a Design Team by an Automated Advisor," Human Systems Integration Symposium, Arlington, VA, November 2001. Funk, K., B. Lyall, "A Comparative Analysis of Flightdecks With Varying Levels of Automation," Final Report for Federal Aviation Administration Chief Scientific and Technical Advisor for Human Factors, AAR-100, June 2000. Guerlain, S., R. Willis, "The Tactical Tomahawk Weapons Control System: Operator Interface Design Project," Human Systems Integration Symposium, Arlington, VA, November 2001. "Human Factors for Designers of Equipment - Military Land Vehicle Design," Defence Standard 00-25 Part 14, Issue 1, Ministry of Defence, August 2000. "Human Factors for Designers of Systems: Human Engineering Domain Technical Guidance and Data," Defence Standard 00-25 Part 19, Issue 1, Ministry of Defence, July 2004. "Human Factors for Designers of Systems: Personnel Domain - Technical Guidance and Data," Defence Standard 00-25 Part 17, Issue 1, Ministry of Defence, July 2004. Malone, T.B., C.C. Heasly, "Function Allocation: Policy, Practice, Procedures, and Process," Human Systems Integration Symposium, Arlington, VA, November 2001. Wickens, C.D., S.E. Gordon Becker, Y. Liu, J.D. Lee, An Introduction to Human Factors Engineering, Second Edition, 1997. tors, instruments may also provide information through aural or tactile means. In general, instruments should be simple and readily understood; the most important displays should be placed in the operator's central visual zone (see figure); and the amount and type of information should be appropriate to the operator's duties. all operator seating. Arrangements Arrangements comprise the layout and location of the interior of the vessel, where personnel live, work, and maintain equipment. For enhanced humansystems integration, living and working spaces should be located toward the center of the vessel were motions are reduced; berthing areas should be dark, quiet, and cool; lighting and HVAC should be at comfortable levels; and vibration and airborne noise should be work together to define the functions of each crew member, the level and type of automation, manual back-ups, and emergency procedures, to ensure effective and safe vessel operation. Userfriendly, logical human-machine interfaces, cross-training, and well-qualified personnel are ways to enhance the effectiveness of small crews. Additional topics on human factors Seating The cover story of the October 2006 Operators spend most of their watch in edition of Maritime Reporter & the seated position. A well-designed Engineering News -- Part I of this artiseat can help prevent fatigue cle -- discussed dominant and reduce wave impact loadfactors concern Operators spend most of their watch in humandesigner:issues ofsickness, ing from being transmitted to to the motion the operator. Seat design drivsopite syndrome, mental fatigue, the seated position. A well-designed ers are: sleep loss, injury, and human · Level of expected vessel error. An upcoming article will seat can help prevent fatigue and impact (slamming) - higher present the topic of human stresreduce wave impact loading from being sors, focusing on mental workimpact loading indicates attention must be given to elements load, noise, vibration, motion, transmitted to the operator. such as shock mitigation (disimpact (slamming), lighting, cussed below) and additional temperature, and ventilation. A support (e.g., for the operator's head and relatively low in living and working final article will discuss human factors arms) spaces. assessment, which includes simulation, · Duration of watch periods - longer computer modeling, questionnaires, and watches indicate more attention must be Crew Size measurements, all of which are means given to features such as lumbar supThe vessel crew includes all individu- by which the designer can enhance port. als with operating and maintenance human factors in the AMV. Shock mitigation is the major strategy responsibilities. For economic reasons, for seat enhancement for those vessels crew sizes have declined in recent years, Mr. Ross is Director of Engineering at subject to wave impacts. Mitigation can and that trend is expected to continue. Proteus Engineering Division of Alion be achieved through relatively simple The resulting increase in crew workload Science and Technology, where he suppassive means or by more complex can be addressed through automation ports Navy and commercial vessel active means, depending on the severity and reduced at-sea equipment mainte- analyses and designs. This article is of loading. Lower back support and the nance. However, the vessel owner, excerpted from his forthcoming book, ability to shift position are important for operator, and designer must carefully Human Factors for Marine Vehicles. 46 Maritime Reporter & Engineering News