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· Consider routine and emergency modes of operation (e.g., routine operation may be with two people, but in an emergency one person can operate the system) · Consider whether increasing automation will increase operator mental workload, such as through a need for increased monitoring · Keep the automation human centered; keep the operator in mind Controls Controls are the means by which operators influence the AMV, including all on-board equipment. Effective controls enable operators to address emergencies in a timely manner. Controls can be mechanical, electrical, or voice-activated. They can be directly linked to equipment or connected by various stages of electric, electronic, and mechanical elements. Control functions include continuously variable, discrete, and information management. An example of controls on the U.S. Navy Office of Naval Research vessel SEA FIGHTER (X-Craft) is shown in the figure. In general, controls should meet operators' expectations; for example, a red (not green) feed-back light indicates an emergency situation. Some goals to consider when designing controls include (Dobbins 2005, MIL-STD1472F, MoD Std 00-25-14, Mod Std 0025-17, Mod Std 00-25-19): · Position hand controls for easy access (e.g., between elbow and shoulder height) · Consider mounting controls on armrests if a high degree of vessel motion is anticipated (e.g., small planing AMVs) · Design adjacent workstations for easy eye contact among operators and for unaided speech communication · Lay out controls in a logical manner, with functional grouping and color coding · Provide for feedback to the operator to verification of control functions and information confirmation · Minimize operator data input requirements · Ensure displays within the overall vessel system are straightforward, consistent and standardized (e.g., standardized nomenclature and symbols) · Design the display to highlight critical information · Design for the lowest anticipated operator skill level (e.g., through limitations of education, training, and fatigue) · Minimize eye strain and other conditions that contribute to operator fatigue · Consider auditory or voice alarms for critical systems. Instrumentation Instrumentation is the collection of devices which the operator senses to determine the condition of the AMV. While we usually think of instruments as visually monitored dials and indica- November 2006 45