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seminate necessary information to the Sailors that need it most. This is not a no-cost endeavor. By investing in new technology, injecting a cultural shift, solid leadership, and a commitment from the waterfront, reduced manning experiments aboard three ships, the guided missile destroyer USS Milius, guided missile cruiser USS Mobile Bay, and amphibious assault ship USS Boxer, will develop innovative and creative ways to reduce required shipboard manpower. In the past, during a main-space fire, the ship would immediately go to GQ which often led to confusion as watchstanders shifted to GQ stations. This is no longer the case. On Milius today, for example, during a mainspace fire, all the repair lockers are manned while the rest of the ship and crew continues the daily routine with direction to remain clear of the incident area. Optimally manned ships use a flex watch response, similar to combat condition II specialty watches, for actual incidents or training evolutions. The ship can always go to GQ, but in many cases this is not required. Repair lockers do not use combat systems personnel, which allows them to remain engaged in combat operations. Milius also reduced the number of personnel assigned to repair lockers and concentrated most hose teams in one main locker -- repair five -- with only one hose team in each of the remaining lockers. By adjusting the paradigm, the Navy is able to maintain a high level of survivability while reducing damage control personnel by 25. According to Navy officials, these experiments and the application of new technology have allowed a reduction in the billets authorized on Milius from 290 to 237, Mobile Bay -- already employing Smart Ship technology, from 321 to 285 and Boxer from 1,080 to 993. This effort has led to class-wide reductions in damage control locker personnel. Today the Navy continues to build new ships and submarines with the latest ship survivability technologies. Highly automated systems will drive changes in our damage control doctrine, such as the Damage Control Action Management Software, a Local Area Network (LAN)-based system that improves situational awareness by using flexible graphical user displays and mapping crew recoverability actions during casualty situations. Rugged laptops will be installed in Damage Control Repair Stations to provide real-time information during casualties and serve as a valuable training and visualization tool. DDG 1000 and the new CG(X) cruiser will have a state-of-the-art Autonomic Fire Suppression System (AFSS) being tested today on decommissioned platforms. Water mist architectures will provide an affordable, effective reduction in the intensity and spread of fire while also automatically providing boundary cooling and containment of damage to the blast area. The AFSS will have the added benefit of being environmentally sound which will dovetail with termination of HALON use when the Navy's current supply is exhausted. Additionally, ex-USS Shadwell in Mobile, Alabama, has played a critical role in the development of new technology and doctrine. Elements of the Damage Control -- Automation for Reduced Manning or DCARM program were tested aboard Shadwell. DCARM is intended to demonstrate advanced technolo- gies for detection, decision-making, command and control, and systems integration required to decrease shipboard damage control manning requirements and reduce casualty response time. Future ships must be more than capable, they must be survivable. The manning experiments in Milius, Mobile Bay, and Boxer; as well as the experimentation on ex- Shadwell and other test platforms will help define the requirements for the Navy of the 21st century and transform the way in which it will defend and protect future generations of ships and Sailors. Edward Lundquist is a senior science advisor and naval analyst with Alion Science and Technology, Washington, D.C. This Day in US Navy History November 1, 1841 - "Mosquito Fleet" commanded by LCDR J. T. McLaughlin, USN, carries 750 Sailors and Marines into the Everglades to fight the Seminole Indians. 1941 - President Franklin D. Roosevelt places Coast Guard under jurisdiction of Department of the Navy for duration of national emergency. 1979 - Beginning of retirement of Polaris A-3 program begins with removal of missiles from USS Abraham Lincoln. Last Polaris missile removed in February 1982. November 2, 1943 - In Battle in Empress Augusta Bay, U.S. cruisers and destroyers turn back Japanese forces trying to attack transports off Bougainville, Solomons. November 3, 1853 - USS Constitution seizes suspected slaver H. N. Gambrill. 1931 - Dirigible USS Los Angeles makes 10 hour flight out of NAS Lakehurst, NJ, carrying 207 persons, establishing a new record for the number of passengers carried into the air by a single craft. 1943 - Battleship Oklahoma, sunk at Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941, is refloated. 1956 - USS Cambria (APA-36) removes 24 members of United Nations Truce Commission team from the Gaza Strip. 1956 - USS Chilton (APA-38), USS Thuban (AKA-19), and USS Fort Snelling (LSD-30) evacuate more than 1,500 U.S. and foreign nationals from Egypt and Israel because of the fighting. 1961 - After Hurricane Hattie, helicopters from USS Antietam begin relief operations at British Honduras providing medical personnel, medical supplies, general supplies, and water. November 4, 1967 - Landing craft from USS Navarro (APA-215) rescue 43 men from British SS Habib Marikar aground on a reef at Lincoln Island in the Tonkin Gulf. 1971 - USS Nathanael Greene (SSBN-636) launches a Poseidon C-3 missile in first surface launch of Poseidon missile. November 5, 1775 - Commodore Esek Hopkins appointed to Commander in Chief of the Continental Navy. 1915 - In AB-2 flying boat, LCDR Henry C. Mustin makes first underway catapult launch from a ship, USS North Carolina, at Pensacola Bay, FL. 1917 - German submarine torpedoes USS Alcedo off French coast. 1923 - Tests designed to prove the feasibility of launching a small seaplane from a submarine occur at Hampton Roads Naval Base. A Martin MS-1, stored disassembled in a tank on board USS S-1, was removed and assembled. Then the submarine submerged allowing the plane to float free and take off. 1944 - TF 38 (Vice Admiral John S. McCain) begins 2 days of carrier strikes on Luzon, Philippines. 1945 - Ensign Jake C. West (VF-41) makes first jet landing on board a carrier, USS Wake Island (CVE-65) November 6, 1851 - U.S. Navy expedition under command of LT William Lewis Herndon, on a mission to explore the valley of the Amazon and its tributaries, reaches Iquitos in the jungle region of the upper Amazon after their departure from Lima, Peru. 1941 - On Neutrality Patrol, USS Omaha (CL-4) and USS Somers (DD-381) intercept the German blockade runner Odenwald disguised as U.S. freighter, board her after the German crew abandoned the ship, and brought the ship to San Juan, Puerto Rico, where the boarding party was awarded salvage shares. 1942 - First officer and enlisted women from training schools report for shore duty around the USA. 1951 - Soviet aircraft shoot at Neptune Patrol bomber (VP-6) on weather reconnaissance mission near Siberia. U.S. aircraft fails to return. 1967 - Helicopter from USS Coral Sea (CVA-43) rescues 37-man crew of Liberian freighter Royal Fortunes aground on reef in Tonkin Gulf November 7, 1861 - Naval forces under Rear Admiral Samuel F. DuPont capture Port Royal Sound, SC. 1881 - Naval Advisory Board submits report recommending the new ships in U.S. Navy be constructed of steel instead of iron. 42 Maritime Reporter & Engineering News