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Maritime Security Use of Coastal AIS to Infer Vessel Behavior in the North Sea By A.J.E. Smith, TNO Defence, Security and Safety About one week of coastal AIS (Automatic Identification System) data are analyzed for vessel behavior. The data was obtained from approximately 1,100 vessels along the Dutch North Sea coast including the entrance to the main port of Rotterdam. Vessel behavior is described by a number of basic indicators that can be obtained directly from the AIS messages or from other sensors like e.g. radar. Possibly, the investigated indicators may be used in classification algorithms or for direct interpretation by e.g. border patrols to detect suspicious vessels for the purpose of maritime and border security. To counter the threats in the maritime domain, nations worldwide are incorporating policies to maintain maritime and border security. However, because of the size of the surveillance area and the vast number of vessels, it may be difficult to detect suspicious vessels involved in dangerous or illicit activities by means of physical inspection. Possibly, sensors like coastal radar, cameras, and AIS can help by remotely detecting vessels that show suspicious behavior. Obviously, remote detection cannot replace physical inspections as not all illegal activities can be inferred from vessels' behavior. Hence, remote detection and physical inspection should be seen as complementary. To detect suspicious vessels, a vessel's behavior is described by a number of indicators which are compared with statistics that describe normal behavior as derived from fiducial vessels. To obtain indicators that may describe a vessel's behavior and to learn about the normal behavior of vessels along the Dutch North Sea coast, a data set consisting of coastal radar, AIS, and satellite SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) from Radarsat and Envisat has been collected recently. In this paper, preliminary results are presented of normal vessel behavior along the Dutch coast as derived from a number of indicators that may be used in classification algorithms or for direct interpretation by border patrols. These results are obtained from about one week of AIS data assuming that all vessels that transmit AIS are fiducial. In the near future, the other data types will be included and the AIS data will be screened using e.g. publicly available vessel data. Investigated indicators In this study, four basic indicators are investigated: speed over ground, direction over ground, vessel length, and time of day. The reason to investigate these indicators is that they can be derived from systems other than AIS, most importantly from radar that is part of the standard equipment of most patrol vessels. Direction over ground equals the You want how much? You want it where? You want it when?...................... No problem really. I'll just call Steelstran Industries. Those guys can handle anything! Defiance Products ® 35 Mileed Way · Avenel, New Jersey 07001 · 1-800-458-5722 · www.atlantic-group.com Towing Products, Mooring Wires, Synthetic Ropes, Pilot Ladders Defiance Hardware: Atlantic Cordage is now the exclusive distributor of "Defiance" brand of marine products offering high strength fiber rope, including mooring lines, wire ropes, and heavy marine towing hardware. One call gets you quick delivery to any port in North America. Tonsburg Mooring Links Mandel Fairlead Shackles Towing Shackles Thimbles Defiance Wire Ropes: Mechanical splicing up to 5" diameter Mooring Wires - 6 x 37 Galvanized Crane Ropes - 4 x 39 and 35 x 7 Lifeboat Falls Fire Wires Gangway Falls Defiance Products Atlantic Cordage Corp. To view our complete catalogue of products, go to ® Defiance Mooring Lines: · DanLine · Superflex · SuperDan · PolyDac www.atlantic-group.com 26 Maritime Reporter & Engineering News